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Although spot urine samples are sometimes used for diagnosis in very young children, they cannot give the same accuracy as hour collections due to variation in excretion of many solutes over the feeding cycle.

Nefrolitiasis | Fauzi | Jurnal Majority

Diterjemahkan oleh Setiawan, I. Comparison of dietary calcium with supplemental calcium and other nutrients as factors affecting the risk for kidney stones in women.

Purine Stones Uric acid stones Low urine pH Gouty diathesis Idiopathic metabolic syndrome Diabetes Obesity Bowel disease especially colon resection Low urine volume Hyperuricosuria High protein diet Overproduction Myeloproliferative disorders Hypoxanthine—guanine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase superactivity Uricosuric drugs Rare monogenic causes of purine stones: However, in patients with uric acid stones, hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria, consideration should be given to inherited syndromes nefrrolitiasis uric acid overproduction, such as deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltansferase HGPRT OMIMwhich is X-linked.

Stones with a branched configuration filling nefrolitiasiis or more calyces are called staghorn calculi. The initial presentation of nephrolithiasis is often with renal colic – severe pain caused by stone passage – triggered by movement of a stone from the renal pelvis into nurnal ureter, which leads to ureteral spasm and possibly obstruction. CaP solubility drops as urine pH rises above 6, while uric acid solubility increases.

Effects of low-calcium diet on urine calcium excretion, parathyroid function and serum neffrolitiasis OH 2D3 levels in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria and in normal subjects.

Reduced renal function and benefits of treatment in cystinuria vs other forms of nephrolithiasis. There are several patterns of crystal deposition in kidneys nefrplitiasis stone formers, associated with specific stone types. F, female; M, male; creat, creatinine; GFR, glomerular filtration rate. Prostaglandin E receptors and the kidney. In children it may also manifest as isolated hematuria Thiazide diuretics for the treatment of children with idiopathic hypercalciuria and hematuria.


Recurrent stone formation is associated with the potential for renal injury from obstruction, interventions to remove stones, or associated infection, as well as from the tissue changes noted above 27particularly in patients with systemic diseases, such as cystinuria or renal tubular acidosis. The low gonadotropin independent constitutive production of testicular testosteron is sufficient to mainten spermatogenesis.

One reason stone formation is not more widespread may be the presence of crystallization inhibitors in urine, which can impede the nucleation, growth and aggregation of crystals in vitro, and have been experimentally shown to interfere with their attachment to renal epithelial cells 18 ; Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Characterization of murine vasopressor and vasodepressor prostaglandin E 2 receptors. Citrate has been used as a treatment for idiopathic calcium stones Table 5especially in those with low urine citrate. Alkali citrate prophylaxis in idiopathic recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis – a prospective randominzed study. Interaction analysis of aspirin with selective amino acids. The clinical manifestations are similar to PH1, but the course seems to be milder, with less renal failure.

Management of cystine nephrolithiasis with alpha-mercaptopropionylglycine.


Type 1 PH1 and type 2 PH2 primary hyperoxaluria are caused by rare autosomal recessive genetic disorders of oxalate synthesis Serum potassium should be monitored, particularly in diabetics, to avoid hyperkalemia. Adherence with such a diet may be difficult, however. Recurrent stones should be analyzed, as patients may begin to form stones containing CaP because of the alkaline urine pH, and therapy may need to nefrolitasis adjusted to prevent this.

Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis as a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs.

Medical Journal of Lampung University

In cases where removal of all stone material is not possible, acetohydroxamic acid, a urease inhibitor, has been used to slow or prevent stone growth Stones composed predominantly of CaP as apatite or brushite are less common, and are seen more frequently in women. The recurrence rate for stones associated with systemic diseases such as cystinuria or primary hyperparathyroidism is often higher.


Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens.

Urine protein markers distinguish stone-forming from non-stone-forming relatives of calcium stone formers. The papillary morphology is often abnormal, with retraction and scarring. Potassium-magnesium citrate is an effective prophylaxis against recurrent calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity ; The American Urological Association www. Workup to determine proper preventive jutnal, with analysis of 2 hour urines. Analyze passed stone or stone fragments by X-ray crystallography or infrared spectroscopy b. Clinical implications of abundant calcium phosphate in routinely analyzed kidney stones.

Extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy ESWLwhich uses sound waves to fragment stones into small pieces that can be easily passed, is effective for most stones less than 2 cm in size, although cystine stones and phosphate stones may be resistant to fragmentation.

Epidemiologic studies looking at specific fluids found that only apple and grapefruit juices were associated with increased risk of stones Augmented absorption of dietary oxalate occurs in all forms of small bowel and pancreatico-biliary disease that result in fat malabsorption, particularly ileal resection or bypass, provided that the colon is present and is receiving small bowel effluent They are diagnosed by detection of an elevated serum calcium level, which is often only modestly increased, usually between 10— The CREMs expressions were juenal using immunohistochemical methods.

Physiology and pathophysiology of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 in the kidney. The effects of cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase inhibition on oxidative stress in isolated rat heart. Rule out systemic diseases or co-morbidities: Randomized double-blind study of potassium citrate in idiopathic hypocitraturic calcium nephrolithiasis.