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Search the history of over galiloe web pages on the Internet. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. Author- ized Translation by S. Burckhardt’s work deals with what may be called the Political Preparation for the Renaissance. It is impossible here to do more than ex- press a high opinion of heretido compact way in which the facts are put before the reader.
The second volume of Dr. Burckhardt’s work is, we herftico, more full and com- plete in itse f, more rich in original thought, than the first. His account of the causes which prevented the rise of a great Italian drama is very clear and satisfying. Madam, — It is the desire of every author, every prosecutor heretiico research, that the products of his labours, the results of his studies, should be widely circulated.
Galleo desire arises, especially in the case of one who has devoted himself to re- search, not only from a certain egotism which clings to us all, but from the wish that the laborious researches of years, often believed to refute old and generally-received errors, should become the common property of as many as possible.
The author of the present work is no exception to these general rules ; and it therefore gives him great pleasure, and fills him with gratitude, that you.
Background: Early reception of Copernicus in Europe
gallieo Madam, should have taken Jthe trouble to translate the small results of his studies into the language of Newton, and thus have rendered them more accessible to the English nation. But little more than two years have elapsed since the book first appeared in Germany, but this period has been a most important one for researches into gailleo literature relating to Galileo.
It was, however, not only of the greatest importance to become acquainted with the Heretoco MS. For the threefold system of paging had led some historians to make the boldest conjectures, and respecting one document in particular, — the famous note of 26th February, 16 16, — there was an apparently well-founded suspicion that there had been a later falsification of the papers.
While, on the one hand, the knowledge gained of the entire contents of the Vatican MS.
This newly acquired experience, and the appearance of many valuable critical writings on the trial of Galileo since the yearrendered therefore a partial revision and cor- rection of the German edition of this work, for the English and an Italian translation, absolutely necessary. I have also consulted several hreetico works which had escaped my attention when the book was first written. May the work then, in its to some extent new form, make its way in the British Isles, and meet with as friendly a re- ception there as the German edition has met with in Austria and Germany.
To you, Madam, I offer my warm thanks for the care with which you have executed the difficult and laborious task of translation. Accept, Madam, the assurance of my sincere esteem.
He had written but a few weeks before that he would send it shortly, and as it would probably have been almost exactly similar to the above, I have availed myself of it, the Author’s father having sent me a copy with the necessary alterations and authorised its use. The Vatican Manuscript alluded to in the foregoing letter, and constantly referred to in the text, was published by the author in the autumn ofunder the title of “Die Acten des GalJileischen Processes, nach hereticp Vaticanischen Hand- schrift, von Karl von Gebler.
This, with some introductory chapters, was intended to supersede the Appendix to the original work, and to form a second volume, when a new German edition should be called for.
It did not, however, appear to me that any purpose would be served by reprinting all the Latin gqlileo Italian documents of the Vatican MS.
The translations from Latin and Italian documents have been made from the originals by a competent scholar, and all the more important letters and extracts from letters of Galileo have been compared with the Italian.
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Abridged from the “Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung” of 6th December, The author of this work died at Gratz on the 7th of September, heretlco In devoting a few lines to his memory we have not a long and distinguished career to describe, for a brief span of life was all that was granted him, but to the last moment he sought to turn it to the hheretico account.
The present work has enjoyed a wide circulation in Germany, but few of its readers could have known anything of the author but his name. The protracted studies which form the basis of it, the skilful handling of documentary material which seemed to betray the practised historian, must have sugges- ted a man of ripe years, whose life had been passed in study; as the author ; no one certainly would have sought him among the young officers of a cavalry regiment, whose tastes generally lie in any direction rather than that of historical research.
Although early destined for the military career, he laid the hfretico of a superior education in the grammar schools. Having passed through the gymnasium, in he joined the 7th regiment of the line as a private, and before long attained the rank of lieutenant in the 4th regiment of Dragoons.
In addition to his extensive knowledge of military affairs, he had many of the accomplishments befitting his calling; he was an excellent shot and a bold rider. But the duties of a cavalry officer were soon too limited for his active mind and intellectual tastes, and he sought also to win his spurs on the fields of literature. He occupied his leisure in translating the work of a French staff officer, ” Success in War,” to which he made some additions. The two physicians who attended him gave him up ; in a consultation at his bedside, prudently held in Latin, they gave him twenty-four hours to live.
One of them having taken leave, the other returned to the patient, who, with quiet humour, greeted him with the classic words, ” Morituri te salutant!
He had, however, in consequence of some local circumstances, already ordered the coffin. Gebler’s constitution surmounted the danger; by the spring he was able to join his parents at Gratz. But herteico health had sustained so severe a shock that he was compelled to abandon the military career.
His parents removed to Cries, near Botzen, for the sake of a milder climate on his heertico. Here he revived wonderfully ; he seemed to have taken a new lease of life, and devoted himself altogether to literary pursuits.
The critical studies before mentioned of the assumed historic sayings of great men, and among them of Galileo’s famous dictum, ” E pur si muove,” brought him into closer acquaint- ance with this hero of science.
In the autumn of the work, which had occupied him four years, was completed. It was not a little gratifying to the young galioeo that one of the first publishers in Germany, Cotta, of Stuttgard, undertook the publication on very favourable terms, and brought it out in It met with heeretico approval, and brought him into association with many eminent literary men in Italy and Germany.
Galileo’s own country was fore- most in recognition of his services. The academies of Padua and Pisa, and the Accaddmia dei Lincei sent him special acknowledgments, and King Victor Emmanuel rewarded him with the order of the Crown of Italy. Before this work was finished he had removed with his father, having in the meanwhile lost his mother, to Meran, and during the first year of his residence there his health improved so much that he was able to take part in social life, and to enlarge the sphere of his labours and influence.
Society in this little town owed much in many ways to the intellectual and amiable young officer. Whenever a good and noble cause required support, his co-operation might be reckoned on.
In common with many other lovers of art and antiquity, he took a lively interest in the pre- servation and restoration of the Maultasch-Burg, which pro- mises to be one of the chief sights of Meran. Unhappily he did not live to see the completion of hsretico work. With increase of health his zest for work increased also, and he addressed him. The subject he selected was the Maid of Orleans. The preliminary studies were difficult in a place destitute of all aids heertico learning.
The work of Ruf on the subject, the learned chaplain of a lunatic asylum, attracted his attention, and he entered into communication with the author. Ruf’s great experience and philosophical acquirements were of great service to Gebler in his preliminary studies on Joan of Arc. But the project was not to be carried out. Just as he was about to write the second chapter, an essay of Berti’s at Rome occasioned him to enter on fresh studies on Galileo. Domenico Berti, who had examined the original Acts of Galileo’s trial, though, as his work shows, very superficially, spoke contemptuously of the German savans, comparing them with blind men judging of colours, as none of them had seen the original Acts in the Vatican.
This had special reference to the document of 26th February,which the German writers on the subject, and Gebler among them, declared to be a forgery. Being a man of the strictest love of truth, this re- proach induced him, in spite of his hsretico, which had again failed, in May,to go to Rome, where he obtained access to the Vatican.
For ten weeks, in spite of the oppressive heat, he daily spent fourteen hours in the Papal Archives, studying and copying with diplomatic precision the original Acts of Galileo’s trial. As the result of his labours, he felt constrained to declare the document in question to heretoco genuine. Actuated only by the desire herretico truth should prevail, in the second part of his work, written at Rome, he without hesitation with- drew the opinion he had previously advocated as an error.
His first work had made a flattering commotion in the literary world, but the additional publication called forth a still more animated discussion of the whole question, which the readers of this journal will not have forgotten.
Gebler took part in it himself, and, then suffering from illness, wrote his reply from a sick bed. His sojourn in Rome had sadly pulled him down. On his return home, in July,he heretiico lost his voice and was greatly reduced. But in October of the same year he once more roused himself for a journey to Italy. The result of these travels was an article in the Deutsche Rimdsliau, No. We in these less romantic days are quite willing to dispense with the shudder at the stories of the dungeon, etc.
His strength of will and mental powers at length succumbed to his incurable malady. The mineral waters of Gleichenberg, which he had been recommended to try, did him more harm than good. Herftico wrote thence to a friend, ” I herwtico in galilo pitiable condition, and have given up all hope of improvement. He had overtasked his strength.
His zeal for science had hastened his end, and he may well be called one of her victims. His last days were spent at Gratz, where his boyhood had been passed, and he rests beside his only brother.
Both were the pride and joy of their father, now left alone. In appearance Karl von Gebler was distinguished and attractive looking.
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No one could escape the charm of the freshness and originality of his mind, in spite of constant ill health. The refined young hdretico, with the gxlileo of a man of the world, was a phenomenon to his fellow-workers in the learned world.
We have heard some of them say that they could not understand how Gebler could have acquired the historian’s craft, the technical art of prosecuting research, without having had herteico special critical schooling. The writer of these lines will never forget the hours spent with this amiable and, in spite of his success, truly modest young man in his snug study.
He always liked to wind up the venerable timepiece himself, and took a pleasure hreetico its sonorous tones. When I once more entered the study after his death, the clock had run down, the pendulum had ceased to vibrate, it told the hour no more. While Italy and France halileo an ample literature relating to Galileo, his oft-discussed fate and valileo achieve- ments, very little has been written in Germany on this hero of science ; and it would almost seem as if Copernicus and Kepler had cast the founder of mechanical physics into the shade.
German literature does not possess one exhaustive work on Galileo. This is a great want, and to supply it would be a magnificent and thankworthy enterprise.
It could only, however, be carried out by a comprehensive biography of the famous astronomer, which, together with a complete narra- tive of his life, should comprise a detailed description and estimate of his writings, inventions, and discoveries. We do not feel ourselves either called upon or competent to under- take so difficult a task. Our desire has been merely to fill up a portion of the gap in German literature by this contri- bution to the Life of Galileo, with a hope that it may be an incentive to some galilek of learning, whose studies qualify him for the task, to give our nation a complete description of the life and works of this great pioneer of the ideas of Coper- nicus.
We have also set ourselves another. To this end, however, it appeared absolutely necessary to give, heeetico any rate in broad outline, a sketch of his aims heretic achievements as a whole.
For his conflict with the ecclesias- tical power was but the inevitable consequence of his sub- versive telescopic discoveries and scientific reforms. It was necessary to make the intimate connection between these causes and their historical results perfectly intelligible. In the narration of historical events we have relied, as far as possible, upon authentic sources only.